Chapter 13: Khshetra Khshetragya Vibhaag Yoga – The Individual and Ultimate Consciousness
In chapter 13 Lord Krishna reveals the distinct difference between the physical body and the immortal soul. He explains that the physical is transitory and perishable whereas the soul is immutable and eternal. The Lord also gives precise knowledge about the individual soul and the ultimate soul. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Individual and Ultimate Consciousness.
- Section-1 (Shloka 1-18)
- ‘Field’ and the ‘knower of Field’ together with Knowledge
13.1 Shree Bhagwan said “This body, Arjuna, is termed as the Field ( Khshetra ); and him who knows it, the sages discerning the truth about both refer to as the knower of Field (khshetragya).”
idam shreeram kaunteya khshetram-itiyabhidhiyate
aitatadyo veti tam prahuh khshetragya iti tadvidah
13.2 Know Myself to be the Khshetragya (individual soul) also in all the Kshetras, Arjuna. And it is the knowledge of Kshetra and Kshetragya (ie., of Master with its evolutes and the Spirit) which I consider a Wisdom.
13.2 khshetragyam chapi maam vidhi sarva-khshetreshu bhaarata
khshetra-khshetragyor-gyaanam yat-tat-gyaanam matam mama
13.3 What that Kshetra is and what it is like, and also what are its evolutes, again, whence is what, and also finally who that Khshetragya is, and what his glory–hear all this from Me in a nutshell.
13.3 tat-khshetram yach-cha yaadrikcha yadvikaari yatashcha yat
sa cha yo yat prabhaavashcha tat-samaasen me shrinu
13.4 The truth about the Khshetra and Khshetragya has been expounded by the seers in manifold ways; again, it has been separately stated in different Vedic chants and also in the conclusive and reasoned texts of Brahmsutras.
13.4 rishibhir-bahudhaa geetam chchandobhir-vivdhaih prithak
13.5 The five elements, the ego, the intellect, the Un manifest (Primordial Matter), the ten organs (of perception and action), the mind, and the five objects of sense (sound, touch, colour,taste and smell);
13.5 mahaa-bhootaniyahankaaro bhudhir-avyaktam-aiv cha
indriyaani dashaikam cha panch chendriye-gocharaah
13.6 Also desire , aversion, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, firmness: thus is the Khshetra, with its evolutes, briefly stated.
13.6 ichchaa dveshah sukham duhkham sanghaatash-chetanaa dhriti
aitat khshetram samaasena savikaaram-udahritam
13.7 Absence of pride, freedom from hypocrisy, nonviolence, forbearance, straightness of body, speech and mind, devout service of preceptor internal and external purity, steadfastness of mind and control of body, mind and senses
13.7 amaanitvam adhambhitvam-ahinsaa khshaantir-aarjvam
aachaaryopaasnam shaucham sthairyam-aatma-vinigraha
13.8 Dispassion towards the objects of enjoyment of this word and the next, and also absence of egotism, pondering again and again on the pain and the evils inherent in birth, death, old age and disease;
13.8 indriyaartheshu vairaagyam-anahankaar aiv cha
13.9 Absence of attachment and feeling of mine-ness in respect of son, wife, home etc., and constant equipoise of mind both in favorable and unfavorable circumstances.
13.9 asaktir-anbhishvangh putra-grahadishu
nityam cha samchit-tatvam ishtaanishto-papattishu
13.10 Unflinching devotion to Me through exclusive attachment, living in secluded and holy places, and finding no enjoyment in the company of men.
13.10 mai cha ananya-yogen bhaktir-avyabhicharinee
13.11 Fixity in Self-knowledge and seeing God as the object to true knowledge: all this is declared as Knowledge, and what is other than this is called ignorance.
13.11 adhyaatma-gyaan-nityatvam tatva-gyaanarth-darshanam
aitat-gyaanamiti proktam-agyaanam yadto-anyathaa
13.12 I shall speak to you at length about that which ought to be known, and knowing which one attains supreme Bliss, That supreme Brahma, who is the lord of beginning-less entities, is said to be neither Sat (being) nor Asat (non-being).
13.12 gyeyam yat-tat-pravakhshyami yat-gyaatvaamritam-ashnute
anaadi-matparam brahma na sattannaasad-uchyate
13.13 It has hands and feet on all sides, eyes, head, and mouth in all directions, and ears all around; for it stands pervading all in the universe.
13.13 sarvatah paanipaadama tat-sarvto-akhshi-shiro-mukham
sarvatah shruti-mal-loke sarvam-aavritya tishthati
13.14 Though perceiving all sense-objects It is , really speaking, devoid of all senses. Nay, though unattached, it is the sustainer of all nonetheless; and though attribute less, It is the enjoyer of qualities (the 3 modes of Prakriti).
13.14 sarvendriye-gunaabhaasam sarvendriye-vivarjitam
asaktam sarva-bhrichaiv nirgunam gunabhoktri cha
13.15 It exists without and within all beings, and constitutes the animate and inanimate creation as well. And by reason of its subtlety, it is incomprehensible; It is close at hand, and stands afar too.
13.15 bahirantashcha bhootaanaam-acharam charmaiv cha
sookhshamatvaad-avigyeyam doorastham chantike cha tat
13.16 Though integral like space in the undivided aspect, It appears divided as it were in all animate and inanimate beings. And that Godhead, which is the only object worth knowing, is the sustainer of beings (as Vishnu), the destroyer (as Rudra) and the creator of all (as Brahma)
13.16 avibhaktam cha bhooteshu vibhatamiv cha sthitam
bhoot-bhrtri cha tat gyeyam grasihnu prabhvishnu cha
13.17 That supreme Brahma is said to be the light of all lights and entirely beyond Maya. That Godhead is knowledge itself worth knowing, and worth attaining through real wisdom, and is particularly seated in the heart of all.
13.17 jyotishaamapi tat-jyotis-tamsah parmuchyte
gyaanam gyeyam gyaan gamyam hridi sarvasya vishthitam
13.18 Thus the truth of the Khshetra and knowledge, as well as of the object worth knowing, God has been briefly discussed; knowing this in reality, My devotee enters into My being.
13.18 iti khshetram tathaa gyaanam gyeyam choktam samaasatah
madbhakta aitat vigyaye madbhavaayopaapadyte
13.19 Prakriti and Purusha, know both these things as beginning less. And know all modifications such as likes and dislikes etc. and all objects constituted of the three Gunas as born of Prakriti.
13.19 prakritam purusham chaiv vidhiyaanaadi ubhaavapi
vikaaraamashcha gunaamashchaiv vidhi prakriti-sambhavaan
13.20 Prakriti is said to be responsible for bringing forth the evolutes and the instruments; while the individual soul is declared to be the cause of experience of joys and sorrows.
13.20 kaarya-kaaran-kartritve hetuh prskritir-uchyate
purushah sukhduhkhaanaam bhoktritve hetur-uchyate
13.21 Only the Purusha seated in Prakriti senses objects of the nature of the three Gunas evolved from Prakriti. And it is contact with these Gunas that is responsible for the birth of this soul in good and evil wombs.
13.21 purushah prakritistho hi bhukhshate prakriti-jaan-gunaan
kaarnam gunsango-asya sat-asat-yoni-janmasu
13.22 The Spirit dwelling in this body, is really the same as Supreme. He has been spoken of as the Witness, the true Guide, the Sustainer of all, the Experiencer (as the embodied soul), the Overlord and the Absolute as well.
13.22 updrishtaa anumantaa cha bhartaa bhoktaa maheshwarah
paramaatmeti chaapiyukto dehe-asmin-purushah parah
13.23 He who thus knows the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakriti (Nature) together with the Gunas, – even though performing his duties in every way, is never born again.
13.23 ya evam veti purusham prakritim ch gunaih saha
sarvathaa varmano-api na sa bhuyo abhijaayate
13.24 Some by meditation behold the Supreme Spirit in the heart with the help of their refined and sharp intellect; others realize it through the discipline of Knowledge, and others, again, through the discipline of Action.
13.24 dhyanen-aatmani pashyanti kechidaatmaanam-aatmanaa
anye sankhyen-yogen karma-yogen chaapre
13.25 Other dull-witted persons, however, not knowing thus, worship even as they have heard from others; and even those who are thus devoted to hearing, are able to cross the ocean of mundane existence in the shape of death.
13.25 anye tvevam-ajaanantah shrutvaanebhya upaaste
te-api chati-tarantyeva mrituyam shruti-paraayanaah
13.26 Arjuna, whatsoever being, animate or inanimate, is born, know it as emanated from the union of Khshetragya (Matter) and the Khshetragya (Sprit).
13.26 yaavat-sanchayte kinchit-satvam-sthaavar-jangamam
13.27 He alone truly sees, who sees the supreme Lord as imperishable and abiding equally in all perishable beings, both animate and inanimate.
13.27 samam sarveshu bhooteshu tishtham parmeshwaram
vinishyatsvavnishyantam ya pashyati sa pashyati
13.28 For, he who kills not himself by himself, by seeing the supreme Lord equally present in all, as one, thereby reaches the supreme state.
13.28 samam pashyan-ih sarvatra samvasthitam-eeshwaram
na hinastyaatmana-aatmaanam tato yaanti paraam gatim
13.29 And he alone really sees, who sees all actions being performed in every way by Prakriti alone, and the Self as the non-doer.
13.29 prakrit-yaiv cha karmaani kriyaamaanaani sarvashah
ya pashyati tathaatmaanam-akartakaram sa pashyati
13.30 The moment man perceives the diversified existence af beings as rooted in the one Supreme Spirit, and the spreading forth of all beings from the same, that very moment he attains Brahma (who is Truth, Consciousness and Bliss solidified).
13.30 yadaa bhoot-prithag-bhaavam-ekastham-anupashyati
tat aiv cha vistaaram brahma sampadyate tadaa
13.31 Arjuna, being without beginning and without attributes, this indestructible supreme Spirit, though dwelling in the body, in fact does nothing, nor gets contaminated.
shreerasthopi kauntey na karoti na lipyate
13.32 As the all pervading ether is not tainted by reason of its subtlety, so seated every where in the body, the Self is not affected by the attributes of the body due to its attribute less character.
13.32 yathaa sarva-gatam saukhshmyaad-aakaasham nop-lipyate
sarvatravasthito dehe tathaatmaa nop-lipyate
13.33 Arjuna, as the one sun illumines the entire universe , so the one Atma (Spirit) illumines the whole Khshetra (Field).
13.33 yathaa prakashyatyekah kritsanam lokam-imam ravih
khshetram khshetri tathaa kritsanam prakashyati bhaarata
13.34 Those who thus perceive with the eye of wisdom the difference between the Khshetra and Khshetragya, and the phenomenon of liberation from Prakriti with her evolutes, reach the supreme eternal Spirit.
13.34 khshetra-khshetragyor-aivam-antaram gyaanchakshushaa
bhoot-prakriti-moksham cha ye viduryaanti te param
Thus in the Upanishad sung by the Lord, the Science of Brahma, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Shree Krishna and Arjuna, ends the Thirteenth chapter entitled ” The Yoga of discrimination between the Field and the Knower of the Field. “
om tat-sat-iti shree-mad-bhagwat-geetasupnishatsu
naam treyodasho-adhyayh ||13||