Economics & Politics / Rural India

India’s Green Revolution 2.0 : Focus on Eastern Region

Union Budget 2011-12 has allocated additional Rs.400 crores under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana for extending green revolution to the Eastern Region of country comprising of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern UP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa & West Bengal, in continuation to allocation made during 2010-11. This amount would be utilised for implementing the strategic plans developed by the states during 2010-11.

States prepared the strategy plan prioritising the key areas in terms of technology promotion for addressing the main constraints that were impeding the agriculture productivity despite there being a good potential for development.

Green revolution envisages adoption of new seed varieties, farm machines, nutrients, pesticides and knowledge based intervention as developed for different agro climatic zones. Essentially, the objective is to increase the crop productivity by intensive cultivation through promotion of recommended agriculture technologies and package of practices.

The major recommendation of task force was for promoting efficiency in water management and encouraging innovative precision farming practices in consultation with the state Governments. It made specific recommendations for improving the rice productivity in the Eastern States through development of appropriate infrastructure with a view to stabilize rice based cropping system in the Eastern states.

Learning from Past Experience: Most of the activities taken up under Green Revolution programme during 2010-11 are short term strategies (suggested in the task force report) that are crop specific development oriented. In order to sustain the productivity gain, it is necessary to invest in midterm strategies for asset building activities like water management (construction of farm ponds, dug wells, shallow tube wells, repair of irrigation channels etc.); micro irrigation, and institutional building. The enthusiastic response for the successful implementation of production and protection technologies of pulses under accelerated pulses programme could serve as a template for taking up similar technology demonstrations of rice under 5 agro ecological regions and Zero tillage demonstrations under Wheat in compact blocks of 1000 hectares.

Plan 2011-12: In brief, the program this year would be a bouquet of three broad categories of interventions under which a number of deliverables could be taken up as per the specific requirements in any area.

  • Technology promotion in compact blocks of 1000 hectares
    • Rice ecology specific technologies
  • Emphasis on line sowing/transplantation, land preparation
    • Hybrid rice promotion – Promotion of resource conservation technologies for wheat crop – Involvement of Progressive farmers
  • Asset building
    • Water source development
    • Shallow tube wells
    • Borewells and dugwells
    • Water pump sets – Zero till seed drills
  • Site specific local needs

Strategies to be adopted: To maximising productivity and production of crops in the eastern region, each concerned State has evolved its own micro-level strategies.

  1. Water harvesting/conservation through adoption of cultural practices like bed furrow in deep black cotton uplands and flat sowing & ridging later in red soils.
  2. Reclamation of soil salinity through application of gypsum particularly in oilseed crops along with micro-nutrients like zinc, iron & sulphur in deficient soils.
  3. Reclamation of acidic soils through liming/paper mills sludge/application of organic manures/green manuring to improve physical condition of the soil.
  4. Promotion of Integrated Nutrient Management to ensure balanced use of fertilizers/organic manures/bio-fertilizers.
  5. Adoption of soil & water conservation practices namely; summer ploughing, broad bed furrow, compartmental bunding, pre-monsoon sowing and rain water harvesting (Farm ponds) to check soil erosion and recycling runoff.
  6. Enhancement of irrigation Water Use Efficiency through adoption of micro-irrigation system (Sprinkler & Drip).
  7. Promotion of high value crops namely; sweet sorghum, maize, pulses and oilseeds in addition to hybrid rice in the region.
  8. Adoption of sustainable crop sequence by discouraging rice after rice in the region. The suggested crop sequences for the region are:
    1. (a) Rice-groundnut-green gram; (b) Rice-groundnut-green manure; (c) Rice-green gram/ black gram; (d) Cotton-green gram/green manure; and (e) Soybean-sunflower-green gram.
    2. Strengthening of extension system in the region.
    3. Promotion of credit link insurance in the region.
    4. Strengthening of agro-processing industries through promotion of contract farming.


  • Deliverables of the programme
    • Compact demonstration of production technologies of rice, wheat in different agro climatic sub regions covering nearly 4 lakh hectares. Nearly 269 units of rice demonstrations covering about 2.69 lakh hectares of rice in 97 non -NFSM rice districts (out of total 183 districts) of seven eastern states; and 122 units of wheat covering about 1.22lakh hectares of wheat in 29 non NFSM wheat districts (out of 84 total districts) in 3 states of Bihar, Eastern U.P. and West Bengal would be covered.
    • Out of 24.4 million hectares of rice area in eastern region, nearly 13 million hectares falls under non- NFSM districts. Therefore, the rice demonstration proposed in 2.69 lakh hectares out of 24.4 million is nearly % of the non NFSM rice area for intensive technology promotion. Rest of the area would be served by the ongoing schemes.
    • Reduction of gap in between the actual and potential productivity of rice in the districts by 50% leading to an average increase of about 0.5 tons per hectare of crop yield for rice as well as wheat.
    • Creation of water management structures- 29500 Shallow tube wells, 9000 dug well/ bore well; 42000 pumpsets; 2000 Zero till Seed drills and 5380 drum seeders to ensure sustained increase in crop production.
    • Promotion of line sowing / planting for overcoming various stresses, input use efficiency and scientific crop management for increased production


  • Impact on Tractor Industry

With more funds infused by the government for green revolution in eastern states of India and their focus on creating the productivity by increasing the yield through mechanization this will impact the tractor industry. If we observe the trend of tractor sales volume in last couple of years Assam, Chattisgarh, Orissa and West Bengal which are among the focused states in the programme has shown substantial growth. Counting on the government focus on this scheme till 2014 in the eastern states the growth of tractor volumes in eastern states will be higher compared to industry growth



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