Economics & Politics / Rural India

Drip Irrigation: Huge scope for adoption in Indian farms

Drip Irrigation: Huge Potential in India
 
Drip Irrigation involves technology for irrigating plants at the root zone through emitters fitted on a network of pipes (mains, sub-mains and laterals).

The emitting devices could be drippers, micro sprinklers, mini sprinklers, micro jets, misters, fan jets, micro sprayers, foggers and emitting pipes, which are designed to discharge water at prescribed rates. The use of different emitters will depend upon specific requirements, which may vary from crop to crop. Water requirement, age of plant spacing, soil type, water quality and availability are some of the factors which would decide the choice of the emitting system. Sometimes microtubes are also used as an emitter, though it is inefficient.

All types of surface and subsurface irrigation systems are covered under MI Technology.

Agriculture is a key sector for India and it will continue to remain the same in the foreseeable future.

  • Huge population of India, already containing 17.5% of the world’s population, India is projected to be the world’s most populous country by 2025, surpassing China
  • Having some of the most fertile river belts, India also is a major producer & exporter of Agri-products.
  • Water is scare resource in today’s world, more so  for a country like India with a huge population.
  • Close to ~68% of India’s population still resides in Rural area, totally dependent on Agriculture & allied activities.
  • River’s, natural & man-made canal system cover only a limited part of India, a large number of Farmer in India are still dependent on timely rain during the monsoon season for irrigation.
  • Drip irrigation is still a lowly penetrated technology among the Indian farmers.
  • The above indicate the huge potential that Drip Irrigation system has in India

Cost of Installing Drip Irrigation System

The unit cost of Drip Irrigation system varies with respect to plant spacing and location of the water source. Moreover, the cost of the drip system varies from State to State depending upon the existing demand and marketing network.

Accordingly, the States have been categorized into three categories, viz., Category “A”, “B” and “C”.

Category A: States where more than 10,000 hectares have been brought under drip irrigation come under ‘A’ Category. This would include the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Category B: Bihar, Chattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal (except Darjeeling).

Category C: All the North Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Darjeeling district of West Bengal.

Keeping in view the level of awareness, proximity to the manufacturing units, distance involved in transportation, potential for drip irrigation, the cost of drip system in Category ‘B’ States is estimated to be 15% higher than Category ‘A’ States while for Category ‘C’ States it is estimated to be 25% higher than Category ‘A’ States. Accordingly, the average unit cost of drip irrigation system for different State categories such as for category A it is 40,000/ hectare and for categories B & C it is 46,000 and 50,000/ hectare respectively.

Cooperative Societies/Self Help Groups/Incorporated Companies will also be entitled to avail assistance on behalf of its members. In such cases, the individual beneficiary will receive assistance through the Cooperative Society /SHG/Incorporate company and not directly.  Assistance of drip irrigation will be 50 per cent of the system cost applicable to different crop spacing.

Different states wise Area under Drip irrigation

State

Drip (ha)
Andhra Pradesh

   5,05,205

Arunachal Pradesh

           613

Assam

           116

Bihar

           301

Chhattisgarh

        6,360

Goa

           793

Gujrat

   2,26,773

Haryana

      11,351

Himachal Pradesh

           116

Jharkhand

           208

Karnataka

   2,09,471

Kerala

      15,885

Madhya Pradesh

      51,712

Maharashtra

   6,04,440

Manipur

             30

Mizoram

             72

Orissa

      11,046

Punjab

      17,925

Rajasthan

      30,047

Sikkim

      23,460

Tamil Nadu

   1,53,437

Uttar Pradesh

      12,636

Uttarakhand

             38

West Bengal

           247

Others (U.T.)

      15,000

Total

 18,97,282

National Mission on Micro Irrigation (NMMI)

The centrally sponsored scheme on micro-irrigation was launched in 2006 during the Xth Plan for implementing drip and sprinkler irrigation in the country. Expected outcomes of NMMI are as under:

  • 2.85 million hectares to be brought under micro irrigation.
  • Saving in use of irrigation water, fertilizers and electricity.
  • Increase in production and productivity of crops.
    • Convergence with other ongoing schemes of DAC & schemes of other Ministries on creation of Water harvesting structures and linking the same with Micro Irrigation system for higher water use efficiency.
    • Enhanced return to the farmers.

Since the inception of the scheme, an area of 17.92 lakh hectares has been brought under micro irrigation in 18 states by utilizing Rs. 2013.39 crores as Central share. During the current financial year (2010-11) there is a budget allocation of Rs. 1000.00 crores (BE) to achieve area expansion of 6.30 lakh ha in 16 states. An area of 3.87 lakh ha has been covered involving GOI assistance of Rs. 775.00 crores so far.

Crop Wise area under Drip Irrigation in India

Crop (ha)

Total Area

Banana

             1,98,655

Citrus

             1,67,285

Coconut

             3,61,647

Cotton

                40,845

Grapes

             2,21,575

Guava

                36,867

Mango

             1,63,493

Pomegranate

             1,14,041

Sapota

                38,325

Sugarcane

             1,34,605

Vegetable

                33,764

Arecanut

                42,363

Others

             3,02,301

Total

           18,90,913

Key features of the Micro Irrigation (MI) Scheme

  • It will be a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under which out of the total cost of the MI System, 40% will be borne by the Central Government, 10% by the State Government and the remaining 50% will be borne by the beneficiary either through his/her own resources or soft loan from financial institutions.
  • Assistance to farmers will be for covering a maximum area of five ha per beneficiary family.
  • Assistance for drip and sprinkler demonstration will be 75% for the cost for a maximum area of 0.5 ha per beneficiary which will be met entirely by the Central Government

Impact of Drip Irrigation in farming 

Below case study is synthesis of in-depth research of four individual farmers elected from Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, an important cotton-growing state accounting for about 33% of India’s total cotton area during 2005-06.Drip Irrigation method is primarily introduced to increase water use efficiency. In addition, It considerably increases the productivity of crops by reducing their moisture stress. Data shows that productivity of cotton cultivated using drip (18.25 qtl/acre) is about 114% higher than under flood irrigation method (8.50 qtl/acre).

Sr. No.

Particulars

DIM

FIM

Gain over FIM

Amount

Percent

1

Productivity (qtl/acre)

18.25

8.5

9.75

114.7

2

Cost of production (Rs/qtl)

953.7

2022.7

1069

52.85

3

Water productivity (kg/HP hour of water)

7.99

2.05

5.9

289.75

4

Electricity productivity (kg/kwh)

10.67

2.7

7.9

290.8

———–

How Drip Irrigation helps in improving productivity : Increase in Cotton Yield

  • Under drip irrigation method the moisture stress for crop is avoided because of its ability to supply required quantity of water at the required time. This has increased the plant growth, increasing the number of canopies from which more flowers and bolls are produced.
  • Supply of water only at the root zone of the crop prevents water flow to other zones where the weeds grow and therefore, weed growth is reduced.
  • The supply of water at regular intervals also allowed the crop to absorb the fertilisers without any big losses through leaching and evaporation.
  • Pre-mature dropping of bolls is reported to be less under drip method because of the absence of moisture stress as compared to flood irrigation method.

What changes does drip irrigation bring to farming?

In a 2010 study, “Impact of Drip Irrigation on Farming System: Evidence from Southern India” by Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, researchers examined the before-and-after effects of 50 farms growing bananas that switched from sprinkler irrigation to drip irrigation between 2007 and 2008 in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. The results are as follows:

Govt. Estimated Cost of Installing Drip Irrigation System (in INR)

Spacing (Metre) Area, hectares  

0.4

1

2

3

4

5

12×12

       10,600

       16,700

          25,200

          32,600

          53,700

          71,300

10×10

       12,100

       18,000

          27,700

          36,000

          57,900

          76,900

9×9

       12,400

       22,100

          35,500

          55,900

          61,400

          81,100

8×8

       12,900

       19,900

          31,300

          41,700

          65,500

          86,200

6×6

       14,400

       30,200

          51,200

          70,300

       1,05,800

       1,37,400

5×5

       15,100

       32,800

          56,600

          83,100

       1,17,100

       1,50,800

4×4

       16,900

       39,300

          63,100

       1,00,700

       1,42,200

       1,79,300

3×3

       17,900

       35,600

          71,400

          96,100

       1,30,800

       1,58,300

3×1.5

       19,700

       40,200

          80,500

       1,09,700

       1,46,100

       1,80,900

2.5×2.5

       20,000

       39,800

          81,400

       1,11,200

       1,99,500

       2,39,600

2×2

       21,300

       49,800

          86,400

       1,22,700

       1,64,900

       2,23,400

1.5×1.5

       26,100

       55,000

       1,09,500

       1,65,100

       2,05,900

       2,81,000

1×1

       26,500

       57,600

          96,500

       1,46,500

       1,99,900

       2,49,200

Source/ Important Links:

http://www.indg.in/agriculture/rural-employment-schemes/national-horticulture-mission/national-mission-on-micro-irrigation-nmmi

http://nrlp.iwmi.org/PDocs/DReports/Phase_01/12.%20Water%20Savings%20Technologies%20-%20Narayanmoorthy.pdf

http://www.jains.com/irrigation/drip%20irrigation%20system.htm


14 thoughts on “Drip Irrigation: Huge scope for adoption in Indian farms

    • Your Welcome, and thanks for reading. Yes there is absolutely huge scope for implementing Drip Irrigation in India.
      And very soon, it is going to be imperative for farmers to go for this, as the water scarcity is becoming a real problem across India & Globe.

      Regards,

      Bhuwan

      • drip is very important for the hilly area where the farmer face problem for irrigation,farmer should be given knowledge regarding drip irrigation,it will give them a new way of living.

  1. I think other web site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and excellent user genial style and design, let alone the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  2. Drip irrigation is the necessity of the hours. without it the agriculture will not be possible in future.
    Pradeep Gupta

    • It is just a mindset – in comparison with the normal irrigation that the farmers are using almost free of cost (rain/river-canals) or tubewells running at highly subsidised/in some cases free electricity the farmers find the one time installation cost of drip irrigation high despite Govt. subsidies Majority of farmers in India have small – medium size farms which is another deterrent. But looking at the future where water shortage will be a reality we all need to face, long term benefit of drip irrigation needs to be explained to all the farmers.

  3. Indian farmers have been following old and typical ways of farming. but if they start applying some new tactics and methods then they will be able to have good quality crop and their hard work will be reduced. at times you really need to do smart work rather than hard work.

  4. Pingback: Poultry Farm Design In India | Our Farm

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