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#Bhagavad #Gita: Chapter 2 (Saankhya Yoga – The Yoga of Knowledge)

Bhagavad Gita

In Chapter 2 of Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna accepts the position as a disciple of Lord Krishna and requests the Lord to instruct him in how to dispel his lamentation and grief. This chapter is often deemed as a summary to the entire Bhagavad Gita. Here many subjects are explained such as: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Sankhya Yoga, Buddih Yoga and the Atma which is the soul. Predominance has been given to the immortal nature of the soul existing within all living entities and it has been described in great detail. Thus this chapter is known as the Yoga of Knowledge

Chapter 2: Saankhya Yoga – The Yoga of Knowledge

  • Section-1 (Shloka 1-8)               Arjuna‘s faintheartedness discussed
  • Section-2 (Shloka 11-30)         Sankhya Yoga or the Yoga of Knowledge
  • Section-3 (Shloka 31-38)          Khshatriya’s duty
  • Section-4 (Shloka 39-53)          Karma Yoga or the Yoga of Action
  • Section-5 (Shloka 54-72)          Identification and glories of ‘man of stable mind’

Sanskrit

2.1  Sanjay uvaach “tam tathaa kripayaa aavishtam ashrupurnaa-kulekhshanam visheedantam-idam vakyam-uvach madhusoodanah”

2.2  ShreeBhagwan uvaach “kutustava kashmalam-idam vishme samupasthitam anaarya-jushtam asvargyam akartee-karam-arjuna”

2.3  kalaibiayam maam sma gamah paartha naitat-tvyu-padyate khudram hriday daurbalyam tyaktavao-tishtha parantapa

2.4  Arjuna uvaach “katham bheeshamam-aham sankkhye dronam cha madhusoodana ishubhih prati yotsyaami poojaahaarvarisoodana”

2.5  gurun-ahatvaa hi mahaanubhaavaan shreyo bhoktum bhaikhshyam peeh loke hatvaarth-kaamaanstu guru-nihaiv bhunjiye bhogaan-rudhirpradigdhaan

2.6  na chaitadvidyah katranno gario yadvaa jayem yadi vaa no jayeyuhu yaanev hatvaa na jijee-vishaamaste-avishitaah pramukhe dhartrashtraah

2.7  karpanya-dosho-pahat-swabhaavah prichchaami tvaam dharam-sammudh-chetaah yachcharaeya syanishchitam broohi tanme shishyeste-aham shaadhdhi maam tvaam prapannam

2.8  naa hi prapaashyamee mam-aapnudyat yat shokam ucchchoshanam indriyanaam avaapya bhoomaavaspatnam-ridham raajyam suraanaamapi chaadhipatyam

2.9 Sanjay uvaach “aivamuktavaa rishikesham gudaaakeshah parantapa naa yotasya iti govindamuktavaa tooshneem babhoov ha”

2.10 tamuvacha hrishikeshah prahasanniv bhaarata senyurobhyor-madhaye visheedantim-idam vachah

2.11 ShreeBhagwanovaach

ashochyaan-anvashocha-stvam pragyaavaadaam-ashcha bhaashase

gataasoon-agataasoom-ashcha nanu-shochanti panditaah

2.12 na tvevaaham jatu naasam na tvam neme janaadhipaa na chaiv na bhavishyaamah sarve vaymatah param

2.13 dehino-asmin-anyathaa dehe kaumaaram yauvanam jaraa tathaa dehaantarpraaptih dheerah tatra na muhayati

2.14 maatraasparshaastu kauntey sheetoshna-sukhduhkhdaah aagamaapaayino-anityaastaam-stitikhshsva bhaarata

2.15 yam hi na vyathyantyete purusham pursharshabha sam-duhkh-sukham dheeram so-amritatvaey kalpate

2.16 naasto vidyate bhaavo naabhaavo vidyate satah ubhyorapi drishto-antastvanyos tat-tvadarshibhi

2.17 avinaashi tu tadvidhi yen sarma-idam tatam vinaasham-avya-yasya-yaasya na kashchit-kurtum-arhati

2.18 antavat ime dehaa nityasyoktaah shareerinah anaashino-aprameyasya tasmaat-yudhasva bhaarata

2.19 ya enam veti hantaaram yashchainam manyate hatam ubhau tau na vijaaneeto naayam hanti na hanyate

2.20 na jayate mriyate va kadaachinnaayam bhootva bhaavitaa vaa na bhooyah ajo nityah shaashvato-ayam puraano na hanyate hanyamaane shareere

2.21 veda-avinaashinam nityam ya ainam-ajam-avyam katham sa purushah paaratha kam ghatyati hanti kam

2.22 vaasaansi jeernaani yahtaa vihaye navvani grehenaati naroparaani tahaa shreerani vihaaye jeernaany-anyaani sanyati navaani dehi

2.23 nainam chchindanti shastraani nainam dahati paavakah na chainam kaledyantyaapo na shoshyati marutah

2.24 achchedyo-ayam-adaahayo-ayam-akledyo-ashoshya aiv cha nityah sarvgatah staanurchalo-ayam sanaatanah

2.25 avyakto-ayam-achintyo-ayam-avikaryo-ayamuchyate tasmaadevam viditvainam nanushochitum-arhasi

2.26 atha chainam nitya jaatam nityam vaa manyse mritam tathaapi tvam mahaabaaho naiv shochitum-arhasi

2.27 jaatasya hi dhruvo mrityur-dhruvam janam mritasya cha tasmaad-aprihaayer-arthe na tvam shochitum-arhasi

2.28 avyaadeeni bhootaani vyaktamadhyani bhaarata avyaktanidhanaanyeva tatra kaa paridevnaa

2.29 aashcharyavat-pashchyati kashchitadenam-aashcharyavad-vaditi tathaiv chaanyah aashcharyavach-chainamanyah shrinoti shrutvaapayenam ved na chai kashchit

2.30 dehi- nityam-avadhyo-ayam dehe sarvasya bhaarata tasmaat sarvaani bhutaani na tvam shochitum-arhasi

2.31 svadharamam-api chaavekhshya na vikampitum-arhasi dharmayaaddhi yudhaachchreyo-anyat-khshatryasya na vidyte

2.32 yadrichchyaa chop-pannam svargadvaramapavritam sukhinah khshatriyaah paartha-labhante-yudhameedrisham

2.33 atha chetvam-imam dharmyam sangraamam na karishyasi tata svadharmam kirtim cha hitva paapam-avaapsyasi

2.34 akirtim chaapi bhutaani kathyishyanti te-avyaam sambhaavitasya chaakeertir-marnaadatirichyate

2.35 bhayaadranaad-upartam mansyante tvaam mahaarathaah yeshaam cha tvam bahumato bhootva yasyasi laaghvam

2.36 avaachya-vaadaamashcha bahun-vadishyanti tvaahitaah nindantas-tva saamarthyam tato duhkhtaram nu kim

2.37 hato va praapsyasi svargam jitvaa vaa bhokhshyase maheem tasmaadutishtha kauntey yudhaye kritnishchyah

2.38 sukh-duhkhe same kritvaa labhaa-laabhau jayaa-jayau tato yudhaye yujyasva naivam paapam-avaapsyasi

2.39 eshaa te-abhihitaa saakhaye bhudhiryoge tvimaam shrinu bhudhyaa yukto yayaa paaratha karmabandham prahaasyasi

2.40 nehaabhikramnaasho-asti pratyavaayo na vidyte svalpamapyasya dharmasya traayate mehto bhyaat

2.41 vyavasaayaatmikaa buddhirekeh kurunandana bahushaakhaa hyanantashcha buddhayo-avyavasaayinaam

2.42 yaamimaam pushpitaam vacham pravadantyavipashchitah vedavadarataah paartha naanyadasteeti vaadinah

2.43 kaamaatmaanah svarga para janmakarmaphalapradaam kriyaavisheshbahulaam bhogaishvaryagatim prati

2.44 kaamaatmaanah svarga para janmakarmaphalapradaam kriyaavisheshbahulaam bhogaishvaryagatim prati

2.45 traigunyavishayaa vedaa nistraigunyo bhavaarjuna nirdvando nityasat-tvastho niryogakhshem aatmaavaan

2.46 yaavaanarth udpane sarvatah samplutodake taavaan sarveshu vedeshu brahmanasya vijaanatah

2.47 karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachanaa maa karmaphalhetubhoormaa te sango-astvakarmaani

2.48 yogasthah kuru karmaani sanga tyaktavaa dhananjaya siddhyaasiddyoh samo bhootvaa samatvam yoga uchyate

2.49 dooren hyaavaram karma buddhiyogaaddhanajaya buddhau sharnamanvichcha kripnaah phalahetavaa

2.50 buddhiyukto jahaateeha ubhe sukritdushkrite tasmaadyogaaye yujyasva yogah karmasu kaushalam

2.51 karmajam buddhiyuktaa hi phalam tyaktavaa maneeshinah janambandhavinirmuktaa padam gach-chantyanaamayama

2.52 karmajam buddhiyuktaa hi phalam tyaktavaa maneeshinah janambandhavinirmuktaa padam gach-chantyanaamayama

2.53 shrutivipratipanna te yadaa sthaasyati nishchalaa samaadhaavachalaa buddhistadaa yogamavaapsyasi

2.54 Arjuno uvach “sthitpragyasya kaa bhaashaa samaadhisthasya keshava sthitdheeh kim prabhaashet kimaasit vrajet kim”

2.55 ShreeBhagwanovach

prajahaati yadaakaamaansarvaanpaaratha manogataan

aatmanyevaatmanaa tushtah sthitpragyastadochyate

2.56 duhkheshvanudvignamanaah sukheshu vigatsprihah veetaraagbhayakrodha sthitadheermuniruchyate

2.57 yah sarvatraanbhibhisnehastat-tatpraapya shubhaashubham naabhinanditi na dveshti tasya pragyaa pratishthitaa

2.58 yadaa sanharte chaayam koormo-angaaneeva sarvashah indriyaaneendriyaarthebhyastasya pragyaa pratishthataa

2.59 vishyaa vinivartante niraahaarasyadehinah rasvarjam raso-apyasya param drishtavaa nivartate

2.60 yatato hyapi kaunteya purushasya vipashchitah indriyaani pramaatheeni haranti prasabham manah

2.61 taani sarvaani sayamya aaseet matparaa vashe hi yasyendryaani tasya pragyaa pratishthitaa

2.62 dhyaayato vishyaanpunsah sangasteshoopajaayate sangaatsanjaayate kaamah kaamaatkrodho-abhijayate

2.63 krodhaadbhavati sammohah sammohaatsmritivibhramah smritibhranshaad buddhinaasho buddhinaashaatpranashyati

2.64 raagadveshaviyuktaistu vishyaanindriyaishcharna aatmavashyairvidheyaatmaa prasaadamadhigachchati

2.65 prasaade sarvaduhkhaanaam haanirasyopajaayate prasannchetaso hyaashu buddhih paryavatishthate

2.66 naasti buddhirayuktasya na chaayuktasya bhaavanaa na chaaabhaavayatah shaantirshaantasya kutah sukham

2.67 indriyaanaam hi chartaam yanmano-anu vidheeyate tadasya harti pragyaam vaayurnaavamivaambhasi

2.68 tasmaadyasya mahaabaaho nigriheetaani sarvashah indriyaaneendriyaarthebhyastasya pragyaa pratishthataa

2.69 yaa nishaa sarvabhootaanaam tasyaam jaagarti sanyamee yasyaam jaagrati bhootaani saa nishaa pashyato mune

2.70 apooryamaananachalapratishtham samudramaapah pravishanti yadvat

tadvatkaamaa yam pravishanti yadvita

2.71 vihaaya kaamaanyah sarvaanpumaamshcharati nihsprihah nirmamo nirahankaarah sa shaantimadhigachchati

2.72 eshaa braahmeesthitih paaratha nainaam prapya vimuhyati sthitvaasyaamantakaale-api brahmanirvaanamrichchati

iti

om tat-sat-iti shree-mad-bhagwat-geetasupnishatsu

brahm-vidyaayaam yog-shastre

shree-krishna-arjun-samvade

Saankhya-Yogo

naam dvityo-adhyayh ||2||

English Translation

2.1  Sanjay said “Shree Krishna then addressed the following words to Arjuna, who was as mentioned before overwhelmed with pity, whose eyes were filled with tears and agitated, and who was full of sorrow.”

2.2  Shree Bhagwan said “Arjuna, how has this infatuation overtaken you at this odd hour? It is shunned by noble souls; neither will it bring heaven, nor fame to you.”

2.3  Yield not to unmanliness, Arjuna; it does not befit you. Shaking off this paltry faintheartedness stand up , O scorcher of enemies.

2.4  Arjuna said “How Krishna, shall I fight Bhishma and Drona with arrows on the battle-field ?

They are worthy of deepest reverence, O destroyer of foes.”

2.5  It is better to live of alms in this world without slaying these noble elders, because even after killing them we shall after all enjoy only blood-stained pleasures in the form of wealth and sense-enjoyment.

2.6  We do not even know which is preferable for us– to fight or not to fight; nor do we know wether we shall win or wether they will conquer us. Those very sons of Dhritrashtra, killing whom we do not even wish to live, stand in the army ranks.

2.7  With my every being tainted by the vice of faint-heartedness and my mind puzzled with regard to duty, I am asking you. Tell me that which is decidedly good; I am your disciple. Pray instruct, me- who have put myself into your hands.

2.8  For even on obtaining undisputed sovereignty and an affluent kingdom on this earth and lordship over the gods, I do not see any means that can drive away the grief which is drying up my senses.

2.9 Sanjay said “O King, having thus spoken to shree Krishna,

Arjuna again said to Him,” I will not fight ” and became silent.”

2.10  Then, O Dhritrashtra, Shree Krishna, as if smiling addressed the following words to sorrowing Arjuna, in the midst of two armies.

2.11 Shree Bhagwan said “You grieve over those who should not be grieved for and yet speak like the learned; wise men do not sorrow over the dead or the living.”

2.12 In fact, there was never a time when I was not , or when you or these kings were not. Nor is it a fact that hereafter we shall cease to be.

2.13 Just as boyhood, youth and old age are attributed to the soul through this body, even so it attains other body, The wise man does not get deluded about this.

2.14  O son of Kunti, the contacts between the senses and their objects, which give rise to the feeling of heat and cold, pleasure and pain etc., are transitory and fleeting; therefore, Arjuna, ignore them.

2.15 Arjuna, the wise man to whom pain and pleasure are alike, and who is not tormented by these contacts, becomes eligible for immortality.

2.16 The unreal has no existence, and the real never ceases to be; the reality of both has thus been perceived by the seers of truth.

2.17 Know that alone to be imperishable, which pervades this universe; for no one has power to destroy this indestructible substance.

2.18 All these bodies pertaining to the imperishable, indefinable and eternal soul are spoken of as perishable; therefore , Arjuna, fight.

2.19 Both of them are ignorant, he who knows the soul to be capable of killing and he who takes it as killed; for verily the soul neither kills, nor is killed.

2.20 The soul is never born or dies; nor does it become only after being born. For it is unborn, eternal, everlasting and ancient; even though the body is slain, the soul is not.

2.21 Arjuna, the man who knows this soul to be imperishable, eternal and free from birth and decay, how and whom will he be cause to be killed, how and whom will he kill ?

2.22 As a man shedding worn-out garments, takes other new ones, likewise the embodied soul, casting off worn-out body, enters into other which is new.

2.23 Weapon can not cut it nor can fire burn it; water cannot wet it nor can wind dry it.

2.24 For this soul is incapable of being cut; it is proof against fire, impervious to water and undriable as well. This soul is eternal, omnipresent, immovable, constant and everlasting.

2.25 This soul is un manifest; it is unthinkable; and it spoken of as immutable. Therefore, knowing this as such , you should not grieve.

2.26 And, Arjuna, if you should suppose this soul to be subject to constant birth and death, even then you should not grieve like this.

2.27 For in that case death is certain for the born, and rebirth is inevitable for the dead.You should not, therefor, grieve over the inevitable.

2.28 Arjuna, before birth beings are not manifest to our human senses; at death they return to the un manifest again. They are manifest only in the interim between birth and death. What occasion, then, for lamentation.

2.29 Hardly any one perceives this soul as marvellous, some (scarce) another likewise speaks thereof as marvellous, and still some other (scarce) hears of it as marvellous. While there are some who do not come to know of it even after hearing of it.

2.30 Arjuna, this soul dwelling in the bodies of all can never be slain; therefore , you should not mourn for any one.

2.31 Besides, considering your own duty too you should not waver, for there is nothing more welcome for a warrior class than a righteous war.

2.32 Arjuna, happy are the Khshatriyas who get such an unsolicited opportunity for war; which opens the doors to heaven.

2.33 Now, if you refuse to fight this righteous war, then, shirking your duty and losing your reputation, you will incur sin.

2.34 Nay, people will also pour undying infamy on you; and infamy brought on a man enjoying popular esteem is worse than death.

2.35 And the warrior-chiefs who thought highly of you, will now despise you, thinking that it was fear which drove

you from battle.

2.36 And you enemies, disparaging your might, will speak many unbecoming words; what can be more distressing than this ?

2.37 Die, and you will win heaven; conquer, and you enjoy sovereignty of the earth; therefore, stand up, Arjuna, determined to fight.

2.38 Treating alike victory and defeat, gain and loss, pleasure and pain, get ready for the fight, then; fighting thus you will not incur sin.

2.39 Arjuna, this attitude of mind has been presented to you from the point of view of Gyan-yoga; Hear the same as presented from the standpoint of Karma-yoga ( the Yoga of selfless action ). Equipped with this attitude of mind, you will be able to throw off completely the shackles of Karma.

2.40 In this path ( of disinterested action ) there is no loss of effort, nor is there fear of contrary result. Even a little practice of this discipline saves one from the terrible fear of birth and death.

2.41 Arjuna, in this Yoga ( of disinterested action ) the intellect is determinate and directed singly towards one ideal; where as the intellect of undecided ( ignorant man moved by desires ) wanders in all directions, after innumerable aims.

2.42 Arjuna, those who are full of worldly desires

2.43 and devoted to the letters of Vedas, who look upon

2.44 heaven, as the supreme goal and argue that there is nothing beyond heaven are unwise. They utter flowery speech recommending many rituals of various kinds for the attainment of pleasure and power with rebirth as their fruit. Those whose minds are carried away by such words, and who are deeply attached to pleasure and worldly power, cannot attain the determinate intellect concentrated on God.

2.45 Arjuna, the Vedas thus deal with the evolutes of three Gunas ( modes of Prakriti ), viz, worldly enjoyments and the means of attaining such enjoyments; be thou indifferent to these enjoyments and their means, rising above pairs of opposites like pleasure and pain etc., established in the Eternal Existence ( God ), absolutely unconcerned about the supply of wants and the preservation of what has been already attained, and self-controlled.

2.46 A Brahman, who has obtained enlightenment, has the same use for all the Vedas as one who stands on the brink of a sheet of water overflowing on all the sides has for a small reservoir of water.

2.47 Your right is to work only, but never to the fruit thereof. Be not instrumental in making your actions bear fruit, nor let your attachment be to inaction.

2.48 Arjuna, perform your duties established in Yoga, renouncing attachment, and even tempered in success and failure; even-ness of temper is called Yoga.

2.49 Action ( with a selfish motive ) is far inferior to this Yoga in the form of equanimity. You do seek refuge in this equipoise of mind, Arjuna; for poor and wretched are those who are instrumental in making their actions bear fruits.

2.50 Endowed with equanimity, one sheds in this life both good and evil. Therefor, strive for the practice of this Yoga of equanimity. Skill in action lies in ( the practice of this ) Yoga.

2.51 For wise men possessing an equipoised mind, renouncing the fruit of actions and freed from the shackles of birth, attain the blissful supreme state.

2.52 When your mind will have fully crossed the mire of delusion, you will then grow indifferent to the enjoyments of this world and (to those enjoyments ) which have been heard of, as well as, to those that are yet to be heard.

2.53 When your intellect, confused by hearing conflicting statements, will rest, steady and undistracted ( in meditation ) on God, you will then attain Yoga ( Everlasting union with God )

2.54 Arjuna said “Krishna, what is the definition ( mark ) of a God realized soul, ‘stable of mind’ and established in Samadhi (perfect tranquility of mind ) ? How does the man of ‘stable mind’ speak, how does he sit, how does he walk?”

2.55 Shree Bhagwan said “Arjuna, when one thoroughly dismisses all cravings of the mind, and is satisfied in the self through ( the joy of ) the self, then he is called ‘stable of mind’.”

2.56 The sage, whose mind remains unperturbed amid sorrows, whose thirst for pleasures has altogether disappeared, and who is free from passion, fear and anger, is called ‘stable of mind’.

2.57 He who is unattached to everything, and meeting with good and evil, neither rejoices nor recoils, his mind is stable.

2.58 When like a tortoise, which draws in, its limbs from all directions, he withdraws his senses from the sense-objects, his mind is stable.

2.59 Sense-objects turn away from him, who does not enjoy them with his senses; but the taste for them persists, this relish also disappears in the case of the man of stable mind when he sees the Supreme.

2.60 Turbulent by nature, the senses even of a wise man , who is practicing self-control, forcibly carry away his mind, Arjuna.

2.61 Therefore, having controlled them all and collecting his mind one should sit for meditation, devoting oneself heart and soul to Me. For he, whose senses are mastered, is known to have a ‘stable mind’.

2.62 The man dwelling on sense-objects develops attachment for them; from attachment springs up desire, and from desire ( unfulfilled ) ensues anger.

2.63 From anger arises infatuation; from infatuation, confusion of memory; from confusion of memory, loss of reason; and from loss of reason one goes to complete ruin.

2.64 But the self -controlled Sadhak while enjoying the various sense-objects through his senses, which are disciplined and free from likes and dislikes, attains placidity of mind.

2.65 With the attainment of such placidity of mind, all his sorrows come to an end; and the intellect of such a person of tranquil mind soon withdrawing itself from all sides, becomes firmly established in God.

2.66 He who not controlled his mind and senses can have no reason; nor can such an undisciplined man think of God. The unthinking man can have no peace; and how can there be happiness for one lacking peace of mind ?

2.67 As the wind carries away a boat upon the waters, even so of the senses moving among sense-objects, the one to which the mind is joined takes away his discrimination.

2.68 Therefore, Arjuna, he, whose senses are completely restrained from their objects, is said to have a ‘stable mind’.

2.69 That which is night to all beings, in that state ( of Divine Knowledge and Supreme Bliss ) the God-realized Yogi keeps awake, and that ( the ever changing, transient worldly happiness ) in which all beings keep awake is night for seer.

2.70 As the water of different rivers enter the ocean; which though full on all sides remains undisturbed, likewise he in whom all enjoyments merge themselves attains peace; not he who hankers after such enjoyments.

2.71 He who has given up all desires, and moves free from attachments, egoism and thirst for enjoyment attains peace.

2.72 Arjuna, such is the state of God-realized soul; having reached this state, he overcomes delusion. And established in this state, even at the last moment, he attains Brahmic Bliss.

end

Thus in the Upanishad sung by the Lord, the Science of Brahma, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Shree Krishna and Arjuna, ends the second chapter entitled ” ‘Sankhya-yoga’ ( The Yoga of Knowledge ). “

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